- Americans’ Views on Mobile Etiquette
- Americans’ Views on Mobile Etiquette | Pew Research Center
- Mobile Phones and Their Effect on Society Essay example
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Mobile data speed is also expected to increase dramatically. Our analysis has identified several key enablers that have fostered innovation and investment in the mobile industry, including strong patent protection in order to incentivize risky, up-front investment in innovation , industry-driven standards in order to solve complex industry challenges , and the allocation of additional spectrum in order to keep pace with consumer demand and support the ever-increasing array of new mobile devices, applications, and services.
Mobile has grown faster than any other industry in history, but it is still in its early days. New applications and services are spreading rapidly, drawing consumers deeper into the mobile economy each year. Some have already begun, such as the Internet of Things—machines or devices that communicate directly with other machines or devices. The smartphone industry has already revolutionized the global economy, but this phenomenon represents just the beginning.
By , the Internet of Things is expected to rival the smartphone industry with revenues in the trillions. The Internet of Things is changing the relationships between consumers and the myriad objects all around them. Equipped with sensors, objects can interact autonomously with their environment or be controlled remotely by the user.
Cars can communicate with other vehicles, elevators can monitor their own safety, packages can be tracked as they move from one location to the next, home appliances can be turned on or off remotely. These new features are helping people be safer, save money, conserve resources, and simplify their lives. The number of connected devices is growing rapidly. According to Cisco, there were million connected devices in and While the Internet of Things has great promise, important technical and policy challenges must be addressed for it to reach its full potential.
First, explosive growth in the number of connected devices will put a heavy strain on existing communications infrastructures. Second, new technologies must be developed to support connectivity for highly mobile objects such as planes or cars and extremely remote objects such as oil pipelines. For mobile to continue its upward trajectory, conditions must remain ripe for innovation.
In order to set an effective policy agenda, it is critical to understand the key enablers that have empowered the mobile industry to become a center of global innovation and economic growth in the first place. There is no single answer, as not all players in the mobile ecosystem thrive on the same model of innovation. As we have described before, the mobile ecosystem can be viewed as a value chain—a series of players that work together to enable smartphones and other devices to exist.
At the consumer end of the value chain we have a rapidly proliferating universe of mobile applications and services, created by content developers, software companies, start-ups, and others. In the middle are the manufacturers of components, devices, and infrastructure. Underlying all of this, we have the creation of core communications technologies, without which the industry could not begin to function.
All links within the chain are essential, and depend upon one another to thrive, but they rely upon varying innovation models. App developers, for example, thrive on staying agile and capitalizing on trends. A developer can build an app in days or weeks on a minimal budget, go live, and make changes on the fly. The market, made up of millions of small businesses, has succeeded beautifully through individual experimentation and trial and error. In contrast, core mobile technologies developed through industry standards follow an entirely different trajectory.
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These fundamental technologies are developed through decades of research, typically by a relatively small number of companies, without certainty that they will be adopted. For example, during the development and roll-out of 4G, two technologies competed for prominence in the core technology space: LTE and WiMax.
A small number of companies invested enormous resources into these two 4G technologies. After nearly a decade of competition to best address the core technology needs in the marketplace, LTE has achieved significantly wider adoption and commercial value than WiMax.
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Exhibit 13 details the long and uncertain process many technologies, including those built into standards, have followed on the path to widespread adoption. Based on this analysis, we identified seven key enablers that have spurred growth throughout the mobile industry. Strong IP Frameworks. For example, the research behind text messaging began in the early s. More than 15 years later, text messaging became widely commercialized.
The innovation model used by developers of core technologies is very much akin to the model used by pharmaceutical companies. The development of core technologies requires both strong IP protection including patent protection to incentivize innovation and licensing to ensure broad access to these enabling technologies.
The core technologies are the oxygen within the mobile ecosystem: fundamental to life, invisible to the user, and necessary for all other functions to continue. The licensing model ensures that patented technologies are universally available while providing a mechanism to compensate innovators through licensing revenue , thereby encouraging additional investment in next-generation technologies. The current patent framework has proven to be highly effective at incentivizing mobile innovation and investment. While patent regimes vary from country to country, nations with strong patent protection tend to see more innovation than their counterparts with less robust patent frameworks.
IP incentives and protections, as well as support for licensing core technologies, are key to successfully promoting innovation across the mobile ecosystem. Collaborative Industry Standards-Setting Processes. The 3rd Generation Partnership Project 3GPP —the primary standards-setting body for 3G and 4G technology standards—unites six telecommunications standards-setting organizations from around the world in a self-driven, collaborative, and meritocratic process.
A standard starts out with a clear, bold goal for a future level of desired technical performance. From 2G to 3G, for example, the goal was to increase capacity tenfold. The industry works together to find effective solutions to the technical challenge. Companies across the value chain—from component design and manufacturing, to OEMs, to core technology innovators—have the opportunity to contribute to technology solutions and vote on adoption of all proposals.
This same process is subsequently carried out to identify the technical protocols associated with each requirement. Once technological solutions have been drafted and specifications agreed upon, they are incorporated into the standard for publication. After publication, the standard can be tested and incorporated into products.
Americans’ Views on Mobile Etiquette
As a point of reference, setting standards for 2G, 3G, and 4G required participation from hundreds of companies all over the world:. Exhibit 15 illustrates the standards-setting process using one feature within the LTE standard: device to device D2D communications.
Moreover, Release 12 is one of five existing releases setting parameters for 4G alone. Standards benefit the entire mobile value chain. Without standards, companies that build mobile devices and services would endure significant additional technology risk. By setting a standard such as LTE, technology risk is eliminated for thousands of companies around the world.
The incredible improvement in performance from 2G to 3G to 4G indicates that the standards-setting process is working. Because the mobile industry depends upon competing companies sharing IP, the standards-setting bodies have put a licensing model in place. By ensuring that essential technologies can be licensed, new industry entrants can more easily enter the market and compete on an even footing, and consumers benefit through lower costs and enhanced global interoperability. Over the past five years, every segment of the value chain has grown, and competition is increasing over many segments.
The mobile industry depends on the streamlined coordination of many innovators to effectively develop the technologies that power mobile. Without clear industry-driven standards, many competing platforms would develop. These competing platforms would splinter off, rather than reaping the combined benefit of all global technologies, and both industry players and consumers would suffer. Exhibit 17 highlights many of the often subtle ways in which standards enhance the user experience.
Spectrum Allocation for Mobile Data Traffic. One of the biggest constraints on more mobile data usage is the availability, allocation, and use of spectrum—the bands of radio waves over which data and voice communications as well as other over-the-air media travel.
Americans’ Views on Mobile Etiquette | Pew Research Center
Spectrum is a critical resource for mobile networks—without sufficient spectrum, they cannot operate. Core technology companies use spectrum to achieve the greatest capacity and deliver the best user experience. There are three types of spectrum: licensed for exclusive use, unlicensed, and shared licensed. Although more spectrum of each type is necessary, exclusive-use licensed spectrum is especially critical because it provides absolute protection from interference and is therefore used to deliver wide area, ubiquitous connectivity on an interference-free basis.
Free International Trade and Capital Flows. Free trade in IP facilitates global adoption of superior technologies. Countries with high import taxes limit mobile penetration and reduce consumer access to the best technologies. Mobile technologies can be used as a tool for economic growth, but only if they can achieve widespread adoption. For example, Ghana has taken a step in this direction with its recent decision to abolish its 20 percent import duty on mobile phones. By eliminating this tax, Ghana expects to reduce handset costs as taxes make up approximately 35 percent of the cost of a smartphone in Ghana and increase mobile phone penetration.
Likewise, low-cost manufacturing brings down equipment and device prices for consumers. When barriers to international trade and capital flows are low, customers around the world get the best technologies at the lowest prices. Healthy Network Operator Environment. Network operators must invest billions of dollars a year to deploy the most advanced technologies. In many parts of the world, these operators struggle to earn adequate returns on their capital investments.slimerpyrriwor.tk
Mobile Phones and Their Effect on Society Essay example
Operators and consumers can become ensnared in a catch When network operators make substantial capital investments to meet consumer demand, prices for mobile data plans may rise, as operators seek a return on investment. Conversely, prices will be lower for consumers in areas where network operator investment is lower, but consumers may receive subpar services.
Market structures must strike a balance in order to encourage robust network investments while delivering affordable prices to consumers. Dynamic Digital Services Ecosystem. The digital services ecosystem is thriving, which drives stronger investment in core technologies and infrastructure.
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This, in turn, drives additional investment in digital services. At very low cost, application programming interfaces APIs place in the hands of entrepreneurs the means to create value—and thereby reduce the cost of innovation by orders of magnitude. The use of open APIs and tools for developers feeds this virtuous cycle.
In addition, a dynamic digital services ecosystem is fueled by highly educated, skilled innovators. To sustain the levels of technological advancement that we have seen thus far in mobile, we must support an environment rich with educational and entrepreneurial opportunities. Trust and Transparency. The use of mobile devices can create challenges for consumers and others that require fair resolution. One of the most important of these involves data privacy and security and how data are used.