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    • Springer Handbook of Auditory Research Book How to write a great review. The review must be at least 50 characters long. The title should be at least 4 characters long. Your display name should be at least 2 characters long. At Kobo, we try to ensure that published reviews do not contain rude or profane language, spoilers, or any of our reviewer's personal information. The mustached bat, Pteronotus parnellii , is one of the species in which cochlear specializations produce an acoustic fovea around 60—63 kHz. Comparison of tonotopic organization in the IC of three species of bats.

      White areas, frequencies below 60 kHz; gray areas, frequencies above 60 kHz. In Pteronotus , the light gray area represents the expanded 60—63 kHz region corresponding to the acoustic fovea, and the dark gray area represents frequencies higher than 63 kHz. Arrows indicate the tonotopic axis from low to high frequencies. Reproduced with permission from Covey and Carr The IC is the target of numerous pathways that originate in the lower brainstem, the auditory cortex, and nonauditory structures for reviews, see Covey and Casseday, ; Casseday and Covey, ; Casseday et al.

      In addition, the IC contains an extensive network of intrinsic connections, which appear to form a cascaded feedforward projection system that could produce a wide range of synaptic delays Miller et al. Integration of excitatory and inhibitory inputs with different strengths, latencies, temporal patterns, and response functions results in IC neurons being selective for stimulus features that are important for echolocation e.

      These include the delay between two sounds e. Although the medial geniculate nucleus of bats tends to be relatively large, it is structurally similar to that of other mammals e. Compared to other parts of the auditory system, there have been relatively few electrophysiological studies of the medial geniculate in bats, and those that exist have focused on the mustached bat, Pteronotus. Functionally, neurons in the thalamocortical system of bats possess the same sorts of specialized response properties as do IC neurons, including frequency combination sensitivity, delay sensitivity, and selectivity for FM sweep direction e.

      The suprageniculate nucleus SG is prominent in Pteronotus and appears to be part of an extralemniscal pathway from the periphery to the cortex. The extralemniscal input is from the nucleus of the central acoustic tract, a cell group in the lower brainstem that receives direct input from the cochlear nucleus.

      yoku-nemureru.com/wp-content/spyware/3122-need-to.php This input then appears to be integrated with input from the IC and the superior colliculus Casseday et al. The SG is the source of a diffuse projection to the auditory cortex and to a region of the frontal cortex that, in turn, projects back to the SC Kobler et al. The connections of the SG in Pteronotus are summarized in Figure Neurons in the frontal cortex of two species of bats, Pteronotus parnelliis and Carollia perspicillata , are known to respond to sound Kobler et al.

      It has been suggested that the SG sends a fast input to the auditory cortex that then results in rapid feedback to motor circuits accessed by the SC Kobler et al. Schematic parasagittal view of the bat brain showing the lemniscal pathway white and the extralemniscal pathway via NCAT and suprageniculate nucleus black.